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Extreme viral partitioning in a marine-derived High Arctic lake

Labbé Myriam, Girard Catherine, Vincent Warwick F., Culley Alexander I. et Tamaki Hideyuki. (2020). Extreme viral partitioning in a marine-derived High Arctic lake. mSphere, 5, (3), e00334-20.

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URL officielle: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1128/MSPHERE.00334-20

Résumé

ABSTRACT High-latitude, perennially stratified (meromictic) lakes are likely to be especially vulnerable to climate warming because of the importance of ice in maintaining their water column structure and associated distribution of microbial communities. This study aimed to characterize viral abundance, diversity, and distribution in a meromictic lake of marine origin on the far northern coast of Ellesmere Island, in the Canadian High Arctic. We collected triplicate samples for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viromics from five depths that encompassed the major features of the lake, as determined by limnological profiling of the water column. Viral abundance and virus-to-prokaryote ratios were highest at greater depths, while bacterial and cyanobacterial counts were greatest in the surface waters. The viral communities from each zone of the lake defined by salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentrations were markedly distinct, suggesting that there was little exchange of viral types among lake strata. Ten viral assembled genomes were obtained from our libraries, and these also segregated with depth. This well-defined structure of viral communities was consistent with that of potential hosts. Viruses from the monimolimnion, a deep layer of ancient Arctic Ocean seawater, were more diverse and relatively abundant, with few similarities to available viral sequences. The Lake A viral communities also differed from published records from the Arctic Ocean and meromictic Ace Lake in Antarctica. This first characterization of viral diversity from this sentinel environment underscores the microbial richness and complexity of an ecosystem type that is increasingly exposed to major perturbations in the fast-changing Arctic.

IMPORTANCE The Arctic is warming at an accelerating pace, and the rise in temperature has increasing impacts on the Arctic biome. Lakes are integrators of their surroundings and thus excellent sentinels of environmental change. Despite their importance in the regulation of key microbial processes, viruses remain largely uncharacterized in Arctic lacustrine environments. We sampled a highly stratified meromictic lake near the northern limit of the Canadian High Arctic, a region in rapid transition due to climate change. We found that the different layers of the lake harbored viral communities that were strikingly dissimilar and highly divergent from known viruses. Viruses were more abundant in the deepest part of the lake containing ancient Arctic Ocean seawater that was trapped during glacial retreat and were genomically unlike any viruses previously described. This research demonstrates the complexity and novelty of viral communities in an environment that is vulnerable to ongoing perturbation.

Type de document:Article publié dans une revue avec comité d'évaluation
ISSN:2379-5042
Volume:5
Numéro:3
Pages:e00334-20
Version évaluée par les pairs:Oui
Date:2020
Identifiant unique:10.1128/MSPHERE.00334-20
Sujets:Sciences naturelles et génie > Sciences naturelles > Biologie et autres sciences connexes
Sciences de la santé > Sciences médicales > Virologie
Département, module, service et unité de recherche:Départements et modules > Département des sciences humaines
Mots-clés:aquatic viral ecology, limnology, polar science, viromics, écologie des virus aquatiques, limnologie, science polaire, viromique
Déposé le:20 oct. 2020 00:46
Dernière modification:20 oct. 2020 00:46
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