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An alternative to dark matter? Part 1 : The early universe (tp to 10-9 s), energy creation the alphaton, baryogenesis

Perron Jean. (2021). An alternative to dark matter? Part 1 : The early universe (tp to 10-9 s), energy creation the alphaton, baryogenesis. Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, 7, (3), p. 784-807.

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URL officielle: https://dx.doi.org/doi:10.4236/jhepgc.2021.73046

Résumé

A cosmological model was developed using the equation of state of photon gas, as well as cosmic time. The primary objective of this model is to see if determining the observed rotation speed of galactic matter is possible, without using dark matter (halo) as a parameter. To do so, a numerical application of the evolution of variables in accordance with cosmic time and a new state equation was developed to determine precise, realistic values for a number of cosmological parameters, such as the energy of the universe U, cosmological constant Λ, the curvature of space k, energy density ρΛe, age of the universe tΩ etc. The development of the state equation highlights the importance of not neglecting any of the differential terms given the very large amounts in play that can counterbalance the infinitesimals. Some assumptions were put forth in order to solve these equations. The current version of the model partially explains several of the observed phenomena that raise questions. Numerical application of the model has yielded the following results, among others: Initially, during the Planck era, at the very beginning of Planck time, tp, the universe contained a single photon at Planck temperature TP, almost Planck energy EP in the Planck volume. During the photon inflation phase (before characteristic time ~10-9 [s]), the number of original photons (alphatons) increased at each unit of Planck time tp and geometrical progression~n3, where n is the quotient of cosmic time over Planck time t/tp. Then, the primordial number of photons reached a maximum of N~1089, where it remained constant. These primordial photons (alphatons) are still present today and represent the essential of the energy contained in the universe via the cosmological constant expressed in the form of energy EΛ. Such geometric growth in the number of photons can bring a solution to the horizon problem through γγ exchange and a photon energy volume that is in phase with that of the volume energy of the universe. The predicted total mass (p, n, e, and ν), based on the Maxwell-Juttner relativistic statistical distribution, is ~7 × 1050 [kg]. The predicted cosmic neutrino mass is ≤8.69 × 10-32 [kg] (≤48.7 [keV·c-2]) if based on observations of SN1987A. The temperature variation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), as measured by Planck, can be said to be partially due to energy variations in the universe (ΔU/U) during the primordial baryon synthesis (energy jump from the creation of protons and neutrons).

Type de document:Article publié dans une revue avec comité d'évaluation
Volume:7
Numéro:3
Pages:p. 784-807
Version évaluée par les pairs:Oui
Date:2021
Sujets:Sciences naturelles et génie > Sciences naturelles
Sciences naturelles et génie > Sciences naturelles > Astronomie et astrophysique
Département, module, service et unité de recherche:Départements et modules > Département des sciences appliquées > Module d'ingénierie
Mots-clés:Cosmological parameters numerical values, cosmology early universe, paramètres cosmologiques valeurs numériques, cosmologie univers primordial
Déposé le:23 juill. 2021 14:51
Dernière modification:23 juill. 2021 14:51
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