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A simplified geographical information systems (GIS)-based methodology for modeling the topography of bedrock: illustration using the Canadian Shield

Chesnaux Romain, Lambert Mélanie, Walter Julien, Dugrain Vianney, Rouleau Alain et Daigneault Réal. (2017). A simplified geographical information systems (GIS)-based methodology for modeling the topography of bedrock: illustration using the Canadian Shield. Applied Geomatics, 9, (1), p. 61-78.

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Many geology, mining, and geotechnical applications require or depend upon some form of modeling of bedrock topography. Optimizing the manner with which bedrock topography is modeled poses a significant challenge because of the unpredictable or erratic presentation of the surface shape of bedrock. Unlike surface topography, bedrock topography is more difficult to determine because direct observation points are often not readily or directly accessible, unless the bedrock outcrops at the surface and is exposed, a relatively rare occurrence. When bedrock is covered by granular deposits, the only methods that allow practitioners to objectively establish the location of the top of the bedrock are to drill boreholes or conduct geophysical surveys. This makes the determination of bedrock topography not only difficult but also expensive. This study proposes a new approach for optimizing the modeling of complex bedrock topography, whose originality is based on the addition of “virtual” data points derived from cross-sections located between known boreholes. The proposed methodology is thus composed of four steps: gathering the maximum amount of relevant surface and subsurface data (from observation points), selecting the most appropriate technique for interpolating the observed bedrock elevations that will be entered into the dataset to be modeled, enriching the quantity of modeling data by adding “virtual” data elements based on geological interpretations of cross-sections (inserted into the model alongside the original objective data), and finally the modeling itself. The proposed approach is illustrated using data from a study area located in the Canadian Shield. Thousands of borehole records and surficial geological data as well as geological cross-section records were integrated to construct a three-dimensional bedrock topography model. The new proposed methodology can be applied to other regions worldwide.

Type de document:Article publié dans une revue avec comité d'évaluation
Pages:p. 61-78
Version évaluée par les pairs:Non
Date:Mars 2017
Sujets:Sciences naturelles et génie > Sciences naturelles > Sciences de la terre (géologie, géographie)
Département, module, service et unité de recherche:Départements et modules > Département des sciences appliquées > Unité d'enseignement en sciences de la Terre
Mots-clés:interpolation methods, bedrock topography, spatial database, ArcGIS, concept of virtual boreholes, méthodes d'interpolation, topographie du substratum rocheux, base de données spatiale, concept de forage virtuel
Déposé le:28 août 2019 23:41
Dernière modification:28 août 2019 23:41
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